представляем Вам миграционный доклад для Сети СОПЕМИ ОЭСР (SOPEMI - Permanent System of Observation of International Migration – Постоянная система наблюдений за международной миграцией) любезно предоставленный нам его автором - Ольгой Сергеевной Чудиновских, одним из самых компетентных миграционных экспертов в России. Ольга Сергеевна постоянно работает с миграционной статистикой и мы рады, что теперь нашим читателям доступен этот доклад. Этот документ был подготовлен на английском языке, поэтому русской версии у нас нет, но тем кто хотя бы немного немного знает английский язык будет возможно использовать приведённые в докладе данные. Можно также воспользоваться электронными интернет-переводчиками (например, яндекс-переводчик).
SOPEMI INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REPORT 2012. RF.
Prepared by Olga Chudinovskikh
Lomonosov Moscow State University/Higher School of Economics
Скачать документ можно здесь/ Download - http://yadi.sk/d/qxv4__qV3w1S6
International migration trends and scale. The scale of international migration in Russia is primarily determined by temporary forms of mobility. Flows of labour migration at least 3 time exceed those of permanent-type and for some countries the difference is much bigger. In 2011 immigration to Russian amounted to 356 thousand that was twice as big as in 2010. Such a dramatic increase occurred due to the new methodology of data collection that Rosstat started to use since 2011. Emigration in 2011 did not change much, but in 2012 – due to expiry date of registrations in a place of stay – it increased.
Migrant stocks. The All-Russian Census conducted in October 2010 established the number of residents born outside Russia at 11.2 million persons, which is an almost 800 thousand (or 7 percent) decrease from the previous census in 2002. An overwhelming majority of foreign-born population comes from other ex-USSR countries (the share of CIS and Georgian natives was 93,4% in 2010, and 93,9% in 2002). In 2010 the main countries of birth were Ukraine (26% of all migrants, about three million persons), Kazakhstan (22%, 2,5 million), Uzbekistan (10%, 1,1 million), Belarus and Azerbaijan (6,6% and 0,74 million each). The four Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan excluded) are native to 2,3 million persons, which makes up 21% of all foreign-born. Important changes took place in the composition of migrant stocks over that period. Census 2010 proved that “statistical” migrants (persons that moved before the breakdown of the USSR from other republic of the country) are replaced by real international migrants. Between 2002 and 2010, there was a significant increase in the number of migrants born in Central Asian counties, with a simultaneous decrease in the number of natives of the predominantly Slavic CIS countries of Ukraine and Belarus.
The 2010 census counted 865 thousand foreigners permanently residing in Russia by mid-October 2010, nationals of Uzbekistan were the most numerous (131 thousand, or 19%), followed by Ukraine (93,4 thousand, 14%), Tajikistan (87 thousand, 13%) and Azerbaijan (68 thousand, 10%). Nationals of Central Asian states and Kazakhstan added up to 42% of the foreign population. As for the countries outside the former USSR, Chinese (28 thousand, 4%) and Vietnamese (11 thousand, 1,63%) citizens were the most numerous.
Permanent-type migration flows. Since 2011 a significant growth of the total number of migrants both internal and international has taken place in Russia. As compared to 2010 immigration has grown almost twice and now comprises 356 thousand persons while the total number of emigrants remains small (33,5 thousand persons in 2011 and 32 thousand persons in 2010). Net migration has grown twice, the total number of net migrants being about 320 thousand persons . These changes are connected with the transfer of Rosstat (since 2011) to a new methodology of long-term migrants counting, that included new categories of migrants registered at a place of stay for 9 months and over , in addition to traditionally counted migrants registered at a place of residence.
The net migration in 2011 comprised 319800 persons , i.e. twice as much as in 2010. This number was formed due to migration (net migration) increase being plus 321483 persons in exchange with the countries of CIS and a range of other foreign countries, as well as migration (net migration) decrease being minus 2369 persons due to the outflow of Russian residents to the Western countries. The new methodology of migrants count has not changed the general trend: the decrease of migration from Kazakhstan, Ukraine and to some extent from Moldova and the countries of Transcaucasia to Russia. The percent of migrants arriving from these countries in the flow of those arriving has stabilized or is gradually reducing. For the period of one year the share of migrants from Kazakhstan decreased from 15% to 10%, the share of migrants from Ukraine decreased from 14% to 12% . At the same time indexes of the countries of Central Asia are growing. The share of Uzbekistan has grown from 13 to 18 percent for the period of one year.
Labour migration Despite an ongoing economic crisis, 2011 saw an increase in the volume of labour migration in Russia. In total, Russian migration authorities issued over 1,2 million work permits and sold about 0,9 million patents for work in private households in 2011 to foreign nationals from 148 countries. Cumulative indicators in 2011 ended up close to those of 2008 when the crisis was in its beginnings and its consequences were yet to be felt. Most labour migrants are CIS nationals from countries that have a visa-free travel regime with Russia2. After the liberalization of CIS citizen admission on the labour market, their share in the inflow rose to 83 % on average in 2011. Taking into account the patents sold for work in private households, the share of various permits obtained by nationals of visa-free countries in 2011 and 2012 would be about 92 percent of different permits for work issued by migration authorities. Nationals of 11 countries make for over 95,5 % of the entire inflow of migrants who obtained a work permit in 2011. Uzbekistan is a leading at around 40% of all work permits issued, while the number of Uzbek nationals holding work permits is nearing 470 thousand. Tajikistan is a distant runner-up at about 200 thousand, followed by Ukraine (about 130 thousand) and Kyrgyzstan (over 80 thousand). Among non-CIS states, a handful of Asian countries predominate, China traditionally accounting for most of the migrants in this group (93 thousand).
In 2011 one third of migrant-workers with regular work permits were low-skilled workers, about 44% were skilled workers and over 4% were top managers. Percentage of low-skilled workers among nationals of CIS states in 2011 was 6 times as much as among workers of other nationalities. In spite of widely spread use of patent system , survey results show that a very large number of migrants never start working and patent is used as a document providing right to reside in Russia without any confirmation of employment.
2 Armenia, Azerbaijan. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Turkmenistan keeps in CIS a position of an observer and has a visa regime in mutual trips with the RF; nationals of Belarus do not need work permits in Russia.
Quota system is the main regulator of regular work permit issuance and there is still no other effecting system to estimate how many foreigners Russia economy needs.
International students. The number of foreign students receiving higher education in Russia is growing constantly. In 2011/2012 academic year their total number increased to 158 thousand (with stateless persons – up to 159 thousand). Students from 155 countries were studying in Russia. Over 75% of the stock were citizens of other ex-USSR countries; 31 thousand, or about 20% of the total, were citizens of Belarus, and about 28,3 thousand or 18% citizens of Kazakhstan. China is leading among the non-former-USSR countries (at about 10 thousand students in 2011).
Naturalization. About 135 thousand persons were naturalized in 2011 , that showed a 21% increase since 20103. The rules of naturalization become more strict , simplified procedures are abolished. The categories that formerly could obtain the RF nationality in a very quick and simple way, now have to consequently apply for temporary and permanent residence permit and wait for the decision much longer. In the middle of 2009 changes in legislation “closed the doors” of immediate Russian citizenship for many foreigners from the countries that do not have special agreement on simplified way of citizenship acquisition.
Migration policy. The most recent novelties in legislation related to migration issues deal with establishment of harsher penalties for violating the rules of foreigner entry and stay in Russia, and for organizing illegal migration, introduction of mandatory Russian language proficiency test for certain categories of migrant workers (employed in retail trade and housing maintenance). An important humanitarian problem has been solved with adoption of a special law targeted to regularization of citizenship issues of migrants which arrived in Russia many years ago. The Russian Federation’s international cooperation in the area of migration continued to evolve, focusing efforts of issues of labour migration from the neighbouring countries and readmission. The State Programme of Assistance in Voluntary Return of Compatriots Living Abroad to the Russian Federation is still the focus of attention and is expected to be modernized in order to attract more participants. In June 2012 the President of the Russian Federation signed The Concept for the Russian Federation State Policy on Migration up to 2025. A result of public discussion and long cooperation between academic experts and officials, the document contains a set of new approaches which are expected to help the authorities work out more efficient and pragmatic policy aimed at both permanent-type and temporary migration to meet demographic challenges and need of economy in additional labour force.